Questions? Feedback? powered by Olark live chat software

Stem Cell Signaling Pathways

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the capability to differentiate into specialized cell types. Stem cells are found in embryos during the blastocyte phase and also in adult tissue. A blastocyte is a 4 or 5 day old embryo. These stem cells can be harvested from embryos produced during the in-vitro fertilization process which may not be implanted or used in assisted reproduction attempts. There are many stem cell signaling pathways that can determine the fate of a stem cell. These pathways are only somewhat understood and include the notch pathway, wingless-type pathway (Wnt), smad pathway, and sonic hedgehog pathway (Shh). In the notch pathway, many of the binding ligands are also transmembrane proteins functioning by a relatively simple ligand binding receptor action. There are no secondary messengers in this pathway. Despite its simplicity, it is one of the most conserved and regulatory processes in the body controlling many developmental processes. Failure of the notch pathway to function properly is implicated in many disease processes including cancer. In the Wnt pathway, receptors on the surface of the nuclear envelope bind ligands and control many aspects of cell proliferation and differentiation during development and cellular repair. Defects in the wnt paths are implicated in many diseases including cancer. SMADs are a group of related intracellular proteins critical for transmitting to the nucleus signals from the transforming growth factor beta at the surface of cells. Essentially, they co-activate and mediate the signal transduction by TGF-beta. The hedgehog pathway activates a certain ligand called "smoothened" by way of deactivating a protein called "patched". This essentially triggers a signaling cascade that results in the transcription of certain genes that are involved in cell proliferation, development, and tissue maintenance.

Anti-dkk3 antibody binds against the target dickkopf 3. Dkk3 is a secreted protein that is involved in embryonic development through interacting with the Wnt signaling pathway. Dkk3 plays an integral role in vertebrate development and in adults, is involved in bone formation, bone disease, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. Dickkopf3 is a secreted protein localized in the heart, brain, and spinal cord. Anti-gli3 antibody binds against the target gli3. Gli3 is localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm and expressed in a wide variety of normal adult tissues including lung, colon, spleen, placenta, testis, and myometrium. GLI3 is a transcriptional activator and repressor of the sonic hedgehog pathway. Defects in GLI3 are the cause of Greig cephalo-poly-syndactyly syndrome and pallister-hall syndrome. Greig cephalo-poly-syndactyly syndrome is a disorder of the limbs, head, and face. It is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by extra digits (fingers or toes) or extraordinarily wide thumbs or big toes. Pallister-hall syndrome is also characterized by fingers or toes (polydactyly). It is a very rare inherited disease.

Product Number Title Applications Host Clonality
AC21-1347-01 Anti-14-3-3 Tau Antibody (AMCA) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC15-0116 Anti-TGF beta Antibody ELISA, WB, IHC, ICC, IF Chicken Polyclonal
AC21-2662 Anti-HDAC1 Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2678 Anti-Ryk Antibody ELISA Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2750 Anti-TSPAN5 Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2801 Anti-NUMBL Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2813 Anti-TCF4 Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2842 Anti-PTCHD3 Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2848 Anti-Patched / PTCH Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2859 Anti-p15 INK4b Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2874 Anti-Dishevelled / Dvl1 Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0063-01 Anti-SMAD2 Antibody (AMCA) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal