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Signaling Pathways

There are numerous signaling pathways in the body. These include (but are certainly not limited to) calcium signaling, G protein signaling, lipid signaling, and nuclear signaling. Calcium signaling is a very important aspect of neurotransmission and many cellular functions. Many cells use both extracellular and intracellular sources of calcium. The movement of calcium from outside the cell to the inside of the cell changes the membrane potential, depolarizing it. This movement occurs through ion channels on the surface of cells. Once inside the cell, calcium can be used as a second messenger signaling molecule. Calcium signaling is implicated in numerous tasks including muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and cardiac myocyte signaling. G-proteins are a group of proteins that have a unique mechanism of action used to transmit chemical signals. Simplified, the process involves a binding of a ligand on the surface of a cell to a G protein coupled receptor. This transmits a signal into the cell which activates a G protein. This protein undergoes certain changes and is essentially activated, released by the receptor, and able to bind to distant binding sites. Lipid is a general term for a group of molecules including fats, waxes, phospholipids, and glycerides. They are mainly responsible for energy storage, structural stability of cells, and signaling between cells. Lipid signaling events involve lipid messengers which can bind to receptors and mediate certain processes. Nuclear signaling involves the transport of certain molecules in and/or out of the nucleus. Smaller molecules can flow freely by way of diffusion, while larger molecules are assisted by specific transport receptors. These nuclear signaling receptors make it easier for larger molecules, like microRNAs, to communicate signals between the nucleus and the cell.

Anti-PARK7/DJ1 antibody binds against the target protein Parkinson protein 7. Park 7 is encoded by the gene PARK7 and protects cells against oxidative stress and cell death. Park 7 has a number of very important functions which include eliminating hydrogen peroxide from cells, regulating mitochondrial morphology and function, destroying dysfunctional mitochondria, and regulating astrocyte inflammatory responses. Park7 is localized in the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoplasm of cells. This protein is highly expressed in the pancreas, kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, testis, and heart. Defects in PARK7 are the cause of early onset Parkinson's disease. Anti-retinoic acid receptor alpha antibody binds against the target retinoic acid receptor alpha. Retinoic acid receptor alpha is a receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A that referees vitamin A and its functions. Vitamin A is used to treat conditions like acne and even leukemia. Defects in the alpha retinoic acid receptor are commonly found in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Anti-SMAD4 antibody binds against the target SMAD4. Smad 4 is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of a cell and is a coactivator and mediator of signal transduction by TGF-beta. Defects in SMAD4 are the cause of pancreatic cancer, juvenile polyposis syndrome, and juvenile polyposis/hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome. Pancreatic cancer is cancer of the pancreas which is a large organ located behind the stomach responsible for releasing enzymes into the intestines that help the body absorb foods. Symptoms include dark urine, fatigue, jaundice, weight loss, and blood clots. Treatment is based on the progression of the disorder when diagnosed. Since pancreatic cancer is often advanced when first diagnosed, treatment may provide some relief but remission is achieved sporadically at best. Juvenile polyposis syndrome is characterized by multiple polyps in the gastrointestinal tract of a child or young adult. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome is a genetic disorder that leads to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and other organs. Symptoms include nosebleeds, digestive tract bleeding, and other organ issues.

Product Number Title Applications Host Clonality
AC16-0042 Anti-EDG1 Antibody WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-01 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (AMCA) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-02 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (AP) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-03 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (APC) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-04 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (APC-Cy5.5) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-05 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (APC-Cy7) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-06 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (Avidin) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-07 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (Biotin) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-08 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (BPE) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-09 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (Cy3) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-10 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (Cy5) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
AC16-0042-11 Anti-EDG1 Antibody (Cy5.5) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P) Mouse Monoclonal (2B9)
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