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Second Messenger Signaling

Second messengers are molecules involved in different types of intracellular signals. These differ from primary or first messengers in the mechanism by which they are produced and deactivated as well as their targets and effects. Most second messengers are small in size which allows them to quickly diffuse through cells and allow for a quick message delivery. In addition, the targets are numerous and one thus the scope of signal transmission is greatly expanded. The messages delivered range depending on the type of messenger molecule involved. For instance, ions are involved in the contraction of muscles, while nitric oxide, which diffuses readily across cell membranes, has an integral role in penile erection. Second messenger antibodies can bind to certain second messengers either activate, deactivate, or otherwise change the action of the messenger or the targets for which they are destined. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyse the hydrolytic inactivation of the common intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine and guanosine 3 5-monophosphate (cAMP and cGMP). Thus, these enzymes play a critical role in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes modulated by cyclic nucleotide signaling. The PDE4 enzyme belongs to a family of cAMP-dependent PDEs that provide the major means of inactivating the key intracellular second messenger cAMP. Four genes (4A 4B 4C and 4D) encode around 20 distinct isoform members of the PDE4 family. Each isoform is characterized by a unique N-terminal region.

Anti-PDE4D antibody binds against the target PDE4D. Genetic variations in PDE4D are associated with the susceptibility to stroke. Stroke occurs when blood flow to part of the brain stops. Anti-FLAP antibody binds against the target FLAP. FLAP (ALOX5AP) functions as a membrane anchor by anchoring ALOX5 to the membrane. FLAP is required for leukotriene biosynthesis because it binds to MK-886 which is a compound that will block leukotriene biosynthesis. FLAP is localized in the nucleus membrane, and the endoplasmic reticulum. Defects in FLAP may be one cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke and susceptibility to myocardial infarction. Ischemic stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is interrupted depriving the brain cells of vital oxygen. This disruption is due to a blocked or burst blood vessel in the brain. In ischemic stroke, the cause is a blood clot, wherein a hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a burst vessel. Myocardial infarction is a heart attack. Heart attacks result when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted causing damage to the heart.

 
Product Number Title Applications Host Clonality
AC21-0015-01 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (AMCA) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-02 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (AP) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-03 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (APC) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-04 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (APC-Cy5.5) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-05 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (APC-Cy7) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-06 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (Avidin) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-07 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (Biotin) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-08 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (BPE) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-09 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (Cy3) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-10 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (Cy5) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-11 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (Cy5.5) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0015-12 Anti-PDE4B Antibody (FITC) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal