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Proto-oncogenes

Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that can mutate and lead to the development of certain types of cancers. In a normal cell, under non-mutated circumstances, the proto-oncogene will assist in regulation of cell cycle tasks like cell division and apoptosis. A mutated proto-oncogene is no longer a proto-oncogene, it is then called an oncogene. Oncoproteins are proteins encoded by oncogenes which are involved in the regulation or synthesis of proteins linked to cancer tumor cell growth. Current oncoprotein research focuses on antibodies that can directly target the oncoproteins inside cancer cells and suppress aggressive cancer growth. This type of antibody therapy has proven better specificity over standard chemotherapy techniques. Typical cells will eventually die by pre-programmed cell death, or apoptosis. This process occurs when the cell is not functioning properly or is aged and ready to be replaced by a fresh substitute. Cancer cells do not respond to apoptosis signals and instead proliferate rapidly. Cancer can also occur when the typical cell- cycle functions get out of control. There are many different oncogenes encoding for several oncoproteins. These include growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases, cytoplasmic regulatory subunits, transcription factors, and regulatory GTPases. One example includes SH domains. Src homology domains are portions of small binding proteins found in Src oncoproteins. Src is an enzyme encoded by the SRC gene. SRC is a cancer gene that contains the code for a tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in the formation of sarcomas and other cancers when the normal cellular signals fail to function. Mutations in normal genetic material can cause genes to be expressed as oncoproteins. Many tumor suppressor genes also exist that protect a cell from cancer. These tumor suppressors usually interact with one step in the process of cancer production.

Anti-tcl1 antibody binds against the target oncogene TCL-1. TCL-1 enhances the phosphorylation and activation of AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3. TCL 1 enhances cell growth and division and promotes cell survival. Mutated forms of tcl1 promote cell survival, growth, and division even when the cell is cancerous. Tcl1 mutations are the cause of chronic T-cell leukemia. Chronic T-cell leukemia, or T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, is a form of blood cancer that affects the T cells of the body's immune system. This form of leukemia is extremely rare and affects the blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and skin of infected individuals. Anti-CBL antibody binds against the target CBL. CBL has a role in signal transduction in hematopoietic cells. CBL is an adapter protein that can negatively regulate many different signaling pathways by binding to receptors on the surface of cells. CBL is localized in the cytoplasm of cells. Defects in CBL are the cause of Noonan syndrome-like disorder. Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant congenital disorder considered to be a type of dwarfism. Symptoms include delayed puberty, hearing loss, mental retardation, short stature, and physical anomalies including wide-set eyes, abnormally shaped ears, and sagging eyelids. Affected individuals may suffer from complications like excess fluid buildup in bodily tissues, infertility, heart problems, and social issues. There is no treatment or cure, but individuals who have a family history of Noonan syndrome can engage in genetic testing or counseling before having children who may inherit the disorder.

 
Product Number Title Applications Host Clonality
AC21-2641 Anti-MUM1 Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2742 Anti-C-Fos Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-2891 Anti-ROS Antibody ELISA Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0103-01 Anti-CRKL Antibody (AMCA) ELISA, WB, IHC Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0103-02 Anti-CRKL Antibody (AP) ELISA, WB, IHC Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0103-03 Anti-CRKL Antibody (APC) ELISA, WB, IHC Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0103-04 Anti-CRKL Antibody (APC-Cy5.5) ELISA, WB, IHC Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0103-05 Anti-CRKL Antibody (APC-Cy7) ELISA, WB, IHC Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0103-06 Anti-CRKL Antibody (Avidin) ELISA, WB, IHC Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0103-07 Anti-CRKL Antibody (Biotin) ELISA, WB, IHC Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0103-08 Anti-CRKL Antibody (BPE) ELISA, WB, IHC Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0103-09 Anti-CRKL Antibody (Cy3) ELISA, WB, IHC Goat Polyclonal