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Metabolism Antibodies

Metabolism is the biochemical process by which an organism converts what it ingests into energy. This energy is used for many biological processes like thinking, growing, breathing, and pumping blood to all the organs in the body. Metabolism is a constant process as metabolic reactions are concurrently occurring in the body and cells at the same time, all the time. The endocrine system plays a very important role in metabolism. Many glands and hormones of the endocrine system are involved in controlling the rate and direction of metabolism. The thyroid and the pancreas, most importantly, help to produce hormones like thyroxine and insulin to control a body's metabolism. Each person has a different basal metabolic rate. Metabolic diseases or metabolic disorders are a group of diseases that are caused by abnormal chemical reactions in the body's cells. The organs can malfunction in their production of certain metabolic enzymes or hormones or the enzymes or hormones themselves can fail to function properly. Examples of metabolic disorders include galactosemia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and phenylketonuria. Metabolism antibodies are useful in many aspects of biochemical research.

Anti-catalase antibody binds against the enzyme catalase. Catalase (CAT) occurs in the peroxisome of cells in all aerobically respiring organisms. CAT protects cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and promotes the growth of T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, mastocytoma cells and fibroblast cells. Defects in the catalase enzyme or the encoding gene (CAT) are the cause of acatalasia (ACATLAS) also known as acatalasemia. Affected individuals may suffer from recurrent infections of the mouth and oral structures. Under rare circumstances, acatalasemia can lead to gangrene. Anti-FTO antibody binds against the target FTO. FTO is a dioxygenase that repairs RNA and DNA by oxidative demethlyation. FTO is expressed in many tissues and very highly expressed in adrenal glands, the brain, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary gland. FTO contributes to the regulation of the global metabolic rate, energy expenditure, and energy homeostasis. FTO also contributes to the regulation of body size and body fat accumulation. Defects in FTO are the cause of growth retardation developmental delay coarse facies and early death (GFDDCFED). Growth retardation developmental delay coarse facies and early death is a rare syndrome characterized course facial features with anteverted nostrils, thin vermilion, prominent alveolar ridge, and a protruding tongue. Affected individuals suffer from intrauterine growth retardation and heart defects including ventricular septal defects, atrioventricular defects, and patent arteriousus with or without cardiomyopathy. Individuals with growth retardation developmental delay course facies and early death will usually die by the age of 3 years.

 

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