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Abcore offers 2 options for clients seeking llama antibody manufacturing. The first is traditional polyclonal antibody production, summarized here. This process is done completely in house at our farm and lab which are both located in San Diego, California. The second option we offer for clients is monoclonal llama VHH single domain antibody production using phage display technology. All monoclonal llama antibody production work is also completed entirely in San Diego.

Abcore produces quality custom llama, also known as cameloid, polyclonal antibodies. Our llamas are bred in the same area as our farm in Southern California. This relieves the stress associated with transportation and adjustment to a new environment. Expert veterinary care and daily health assessment insures that our clients are receiving the best possible chance for achieving the right llama antibody to the target protein. A certificate of analysis accompanies each service performed.

Abcore offers standard 91 day llama production packages which consist of 5 immunizations, and 3 production bleeds (please contact us for example project timeline and adjuvant details). However, we can adjust our protocol if you have specific needs including supplying fresh blood throughout Southern California for peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) or DNA/RNA isolation.

We have also started a series of blog posts on llama antibodies which mostly focus on the unique structure of the single domain llama VHH domain antibodies. The first blog post is about the differences in llama heavy chain antibodies, and the second addresses the details of llama antibody structure.

Please note:

  • Antigen requirement for custom llama antibody production: 2.5 mg per 1 llama protocol for immunizations.
  • Pre-immunization bleeds average 5 ml serum, only if requested.
  • ELISA on 1 bleed is done at any time during the project.
  • If you request ELISA testing, additional antigen may be required.
  • Typical yield of serum from the standard llama antibody production protocol is 750 ml llama serum

Additional Services Beyond Standard 98 Day Llama Protocol

  • Additional production bleeds
  • SQ/IM/IP/ID/IV immunizations
  • Additional ELISA assays
  • Protein G purification
  • Affinity purification
  • Western blot validation
  • IHC validation
  • ICC validation
  • Antibody isotyping

Please contact us for detailed pricing information or with any questions you may have by calling 1-888-359-1364 or emailing us at

Abcore provides free antigen design to assist in selection of the best possible peptide sequence for eliciting the desired antibody response. We use the latest in software with the proper algorithms to assess antigenicity, hydrophilicity, flexibility, secondary structure and aggregation potential. Please take advantage of this free assistance.

Polyclonal Antibody Production Order Form (PDF)

Abcore USDA registration number 93-R-0541.