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Drug Metabolism

When foreign substances enter the body, they are broken down or metabolized by the process of drug metabolism. Typically, a drug will enter the bloodstream byway of many routes. Tablets or capsules orally ingested are broken down by the stomach and intestines where they are transferred to the bloodstream, or drugs can be administered directly into the bloodstream through a vein. The drug metabolism occurs when the body chemically changes the drug, by essentially deactivating it and breaking it down into metabolites. The majority of this process takes place in the intestines or the liver so that the by-products can be eliminated from the body. Drug metabolism takes place in 2 phases. Phase I is when oxidation, reduction, or other hydrolysis reactions occur by way of certain oxidases. In phase II, conjugation reactions occur, which detoxify the drug. CYP-450 and flavin mono-oxygenase are two enzymes involved in many phase I human drug metabolism pathways. Drug interactions exist when one drug can inhibit or reduce the effect of these enzymes metabolizing another drug, thus causing excess buildups of the drugs. For example, diuretics reduce the levels of certain electrolytes in serum when taken with digoxin and lithium. Monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressants seriously interact with other types of antidepressant (tricyclic or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and can lead to serious side effects like seizures. Foods like dairy and grapefruit juice can interfere with the absorption of certain drugs, and alcohol is known to intensify the effect of other central nervous system depressants (like antipsychotics and antihistamines).

Anti-CYB5R3 binds against the target cytochrome b5 reductase 3. Cytochrome b5 reductase 3 is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the mitochondrion outer membrane, and in the cytoplasm. CYB5R3 is expressed at the late stages of erythroid maturation. Cytochrome b5 reductase 3 is an enzyme that is involved in the desaturation and elongation of fatty acids, drug metabolism, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Defects in CYB5R3 are the cause of methemoglobinemia CYB5R3 related. Methemoglobinemia is a blood disorder characterized by an abnormal amount of methemoglobin (a form of hemoglobin that cannot release oxygen). Symptoms include bluish skin color, developmental delay, seizures, fatigue, and headaches. Treatment with methylene blue and vitamin C has been somewhat successful. Anti-CYP2C8 antibody binds against the target cytochrome P450 2C8. CYP2C8 is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and the microsome membrane and belongs to the cytochrome P450 family. Cytochrome P450s are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenase enzymes. This enzyme is involved in NADPH-dependent electron transport in liver microsomes.

 
Product Number Title Applications Host Clonality
AC21-2638 Anti-Serotonin Transporter Antibody ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-01 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (AMCA) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-02 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (AP) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-03 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (APC) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-04 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (APC-Cy5.5) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-05 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (APC-Cy7) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-06 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (Avidin) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-07 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (Biotin) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-08 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (BPE) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-09 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (Cy3) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-10 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (Cy5) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal
AC21-0152-11 Anti-NQO1 Antibody (Cy5.5) ELISA, WB Goat Polyclonal