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Cofactors, Vitamins, and Minerals

Cofactors, vitamins, and minerals help bodies function properly. Most vitamins and minerals are absorbed through the food that people ate. The ones that are not can be taken in supplemental form. Vitamins are organic compounds that cannot be synthesized by the body and are required in small amounts. They have two main categories- fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble vitamins dissolve in fat and can be absorbed or stored by the body. Water soluble vitamins can only be absorbed in the presence of water. Minerals are inorganic elements that cannot be synthesized or inter-converted by the body. Cofactors are non-protein chemicals that are attached to a protein and required for that protein to do its job. Cofactors, vitamins, and minerals can boost the immune system, support normal growth and development, and help cells and organs function properly. Vitamins, cofactors, and minerals have a fundamental role in cellular energy generation or metabolism. They are necessary in numerous metabolic processes and are active proton and electron carriers in the ATP-generating cellular respiratory chain.

Anti-SRD5A2 antibody binds against the target steroid 5 alpha reductase 2. SRD5A2 converts testosterone into DHT and progesterone or corticosterone and plays a central role in sexual differentiation and androgen physiology. SRD5A2 is expressed in the prostate and localized on the microsome and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Defects in SRD5A2 are the cause of pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias. Pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias is an abnormal arrangement of external genetalia. Individuals affected with pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias typically have somewhat male and somewhat female genetalia which has been linked to 5-alpha-reductase deficiency. BMPR1A antibody binds against the target bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A. BMPR1A is localized on the cell membrane and highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Defects in BMPR1A are the cause of juvenile polyposis syndrome, Cowden disease, and hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome 2. Juvenile polyposis syndrome is characterized by multiple polyps in the gastrointestinal tract of a child or young adult. Cowden disease is characterized by multiple hamartomatous papules. Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome 2 is a rare inherited cancer characterized by development of many polyps in the large intestine.


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