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Alzheimer's Disease

The nervous system is an intricate, highly developed system that regulates and synchronizes the body's activities. The nervous system is an organ system which contains a grid of specialized neuronal cells called neurons. Disorders of the nervous system, or neuronal diseases, can be caused by many different mechanisms. The nervous system is vulnerable to trauma, infections, degenerations, structural defects, tumors, blood flow disruption, and autoimmune disorders. Because the amount of nerve cells a person or animal is born with stays stable throughout their lives (brain cells and other peripheral neurons are not regenerated or created later in life), neural degeneration like Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and Alzheimer's are progressive and irreversible types of neuronal disease or dysfunction. Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative and progressive neurologic disorder characterized by terminal dementia, personality changes, disorientation, and inability to communicate effectively. AD is the most common form of dementia. Risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease include age, genetics, and head trauma. Females are more frequently affected than males. In a brain affected with Alzheimer's, brain cells degenerate and die. Amyloid plaques accumulate between the nerve cells which impede the processes of the brain activity. Nerve tangles (neurofibrillary tangles) develop inside the actual brain cells (neurons) which impede the cells ability to transport information between cells. Further degeneration leads to ventricle enlargement and decreased brain matter (shrinkage) in parts of the brain that control memory and language.

Anti-Tau antibody binds against the Tau protein. Tau promotes microtubule association and structure. Tau is localized in the cytoplasm, axon, and cell membrane of neurons. In Alzheimer's disease, the neuronal cytoskeleton is degenerated and replaced with tangles of proteins made of Tau. Defects in Tau are also thought to cause frontotemporal dementia (Pick's disease) and progressive supranuclear palsy. Pick's disease is a permanent form of dementia similar to Alzheimer's disease. Named for Arnold Pick, a Czech neurologist and psychiatrist, who identified the disease, Pick's disease is characterized by Pick bodies or distinct argyrophilic (silver staining) spherical inclusions. Pick bodies are composed of tau fibrils in an abnormal and chaotic assembly. Alzheimer's disease antibodies are useful in staining Pick bodies. Anti-Presenilin 2 antibody binds against presenilin 2. Psen2 is a necessary subunit for the gamma-secretase complex which is responsible for the intramembrane cleavage of Notch receptors and beta-amyloid precursor proteins. Psen2 is localized on the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus and found in skeletal and heart muscle, placenta, brain, liver, and kidney. Defects in PSEN2 cause Alzheimer's disease type 4 and cardiomyopathy dilated type IV. Alzheimer's disease type 4 is a familial form of Alzheimer's. Familial cases of Alzheimer's account for about 25% of Alzheimer's cases. Relatively speaking, genetic forms of Alzheimer's are rare in comparison to sporadic Alzheimer's which occurs in people with no history of the disorder in their family. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a condition characterized by a weakened and enlarged heart muscle that cannot function efficiently. The ventricular dilation causes an impaired systolic function which results in an irregular heartbeat and heart failure. Affected individuals are at risk of premature death.

 
Product Number Title Applications Host Clonality
AC16-0010 Anti-GAPDH Antibody WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-01 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (AMCA) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-02 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (AP) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-03 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (APC) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-04 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (APC-Cy5.5) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-05 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (APC-Cy7) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-06 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (Avidin) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-07 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (Biotin) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-08 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (BPE) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-09 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (Cy3) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-10 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (Cy5) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)
AC16-0010-11 Anti-GAPDH Antibody (Cy5.5) WB, IHC(F), IHC(P), ICC, IF, IP, FC Mouse Monoclonal (6C5)