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Agglutination Antibodies

Agglutination refers to the gluing or clumping of particles or cells in the presence of an agglutination antibody. Agglutination techniques are useful in detecting antigen-antibody reactions. The agglutination reaction reflects many types of interactions that can take place between certain molecules when they get together and form a complex. These interactions typically involve the binding of an antibody against an antigen and then further interactions between those antigen-antibody complexes with each other. Colloidal instability (the aggregation of the molecules into masses) can lead to precipitation of the antigen-antibody complexes. The presence of these larger complexes affects the way light scatters though the material and can lead to a quantitative measure of the reaction between the antigen and antibody. The essence of the agglutination process can be affected by the antigen’s tendency to denature or remain constant in structure and can be facilitated (in the case of certain antigens) by selective exposure to enzymes like bromelin, papain, and ficin. The agglutination antibodies are also known as agglutinins. Agglutination involves a two-step process commencing with the sensitization or initial binding of the antigen and antibody followed by the formation of the larger aggregates. The initial reaction of binding is rapid and reversible but also stable. The final aggregate formation of the larger molecules can be influenced by external factors like pH and temperature. If the agglutination process is complete, a visible aggregate will be seen as a precipitate in the solution or on the slide.

The CD235a antibody is also known as the glycophorin A antibody. Anti-glycophorin A antibody binds against glycophorin A. Glycophorin A is a major membrane protein of the erythrocyte and is expressed in the cell membrane of blood group cells, specifically red blood cells. A segment of the glycophorin A protein lies outside of the erythrocyte membrane and contains blood group receptors. Glycophorin A may be involved in the translocation of SLC4A1 which is an anion exchanger. CD235a is also a receptor for the influenza virus and hepatitis A. Anti-blood group B antigen antibody binds against the blood group B antigen. There are many blood group antigens. Blood group antigens are surface markers on the red blood cell membrane. Each blood group exhibits different antigens on the surface of their red blood cells. This phenomenon is extremely important when blood from different people mixes during blood transfusions or even birth. Exposure to foreign blood group antigens can trigger immune reactions. This reaction is minimized by typing blood before a transfusion or treating a pregnant mother with antibodies binding against the fetal blood group antigen.

Product Number Title Applications Host Clonality
11-419 Anti-Glycophorin A Antibody IHC(F), FC, AGG Mouse Monoclonal (HIR2)
1F-419 Anti-Glycophorin A Antibody (FITC) IHC(F), FC, AGG Mouse Monoclonal (HIR2)
1P-419 Anti-Glycophorin A Antibody (PE) IHC(F), FC, AGG Mouse Monoclonal (HIR2)
99-805 Anti-Blood Group A Antibody AGG Mouse Monoclonal (HE-195)
99-806 Anti-Blood Group B Antibody IHC(P), AGG Mouse Monoclonal (HEB-29)
99-807 Anti-Blood Group A1B Antibody AGG Mouse Monoclonal (HE-24)
99-809 Anti-Blood Group A Antibody IHC(P), AGG Mouse Monoclonal (HE-193)