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Chromatin is the structure formed between DNA and proteins assembled in the cell’s nucleus. The nucleosome, the basic unit of chromatin, is highly condensed making the individual genetic material or genes on the DNA hidden or inaccessible by certain biological molecules. The DNA is wound around histone proteins. Chromatin modification involves enzymes that affect DNA transcription. Chromatin modifying enzymes essentially work to make the condensed chromatin accessible for transcription factors, DNA replication, recombination, and repair. There are many different surfaces to nucleosomes which provide many different binding sites for chromatin modifying enzymes. There are at least eight different classes of modifiers which have been characterized based on site and mechanism of action. These chromatin modifying enzymes have the potential to influence many fundamental biological processes of which some may be epigenetically inherited. Histone acetylation occurs byway of the chromatin modifying enzymes with histone acetyltransferase activity like acetyl co-enzyme A. Acetylation is a major component of gene regulation which is highly regulated. The process of acetylation changes the ionic charge of the histone from positive to neutral. This causes the chromatin to relax in preparation for gene transcription. Histone deacetylation will reverse this relaxation by charging the histones back to positive and thus limiting gene transcription.

Anti-mortality factor 4 like 2 antibody binds against the mortality factor 4 like 2. Mortality factor 4 like 2 is localized in the nucleus of the cell. It is a component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex which is involved in the transcriptional activation of certain genes located in the nucleosome histone H4 and H2A. This complex may play a direct role in DNA repair when directly recruited to sites of DNA damage. Anti-BCOR antibody binds against the target BCL6 interacting co-repressor. BCOR is localized in the cell nucleus and expressed ubiquitously in many different cellular tissues. BCOR is a transcriptional co-repressor which may inhibit gene expression when recruited by specific DNA-binding proteins. Defects in BCOR are the cause of microphthalmia syndromic type 2. Microphthalmia is a developmental disorder of the eye that can occur in one or both eyes. Affected individuals experience defective eye growth as well as tooth, face, and heart abnormalities.


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